History of Newcastle, New South Wales. This article details the history of Newcastle, New South Wales from the first human activity in the region to the 2. Pre- European settlement.
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Archaeological evidence exists that human beings have inhabited the landscape of Newcastle for at least 6. In 2. 00. 9, an Aboriginal hearth and factory were uncovered at the site of the former Palais Royale. Over 5,5. 34 Aboriginal artefacts were recovered, representing three Aboriginal occupation periods dating from 6,7. BP (before present) and identified as a site of . The Reverend Lancelot Threlkeld, a missionary stationed at Newcastle and Lake Macquarie during the 1.
Aboriginal people of the Newcastle Tribe were called Mulubinbakal (men) and Mulubinbakalleen (female). Since 1. 89. 2, the Indigenous people of Newcastle have come to be known as the Awabakal. His discovery of the area was largely accidental; as he had been sent in search of a number of convicts who had seized the HMS Cumberland as she was sailing from Sydney Cove. Shortland entered what he later described as . Over the next two years, coal mined from the area was the New South Wales colony's first export.
Philip Gidley King, the Governor of New South Wales from 1. Hunter Valley. In the same year, the first shipment of coal was dispatched to Sydney. This settlement closed less than a year later.
The settlement was named Coal River, also Kingstown and then renamed Newcastle, after England's famous coal port. The name first appeared by the commission issued by Governor King on 1. March 1. 80. 4 to Lieutenant Charles Menzies of the Royal Marines, appointing him superintendent of the new settlement. Morpeth, New South Wales is a similar distance north of Newcastle as Morpeth, Northumberland is north of Newcastle upon Tyne.
Under Captain James Wallis, commandant from 1. Captain Wallis laid out the streets of the town, built the first church of the site of the present Christ Church Anglican Cathedral, erected the old gaol on the seashore, and began work on the breakwater which now joins Nobbys Head to the mainland. The quality of these first buildings was poor, and only (a much reinforced) breakwater survives. During this period, in 1. Australia was built in East Newcastle.
There, convicts were sent to burn oyster shells for making lime. Prisoner numbers were reduced to 1. Port Macquarie. It began to acquire the aspect of a typical Australian pioneer settlement, and a steady flow of free settlers poured into the hinterland. Early steamers. The company had a fleet of freighters as well as several fast passenger vessels, including the PS Newcastle and the PS Namoi.
The Namoi had first- class cabins with the latest facilities. Passengers on overnight passage to Sydney arrived fresh for the new day, and was preferable to the long and arduous railway journey. These were commonly known as . These ships continued in service until recent times.
Among the areas hit within the city were dockyards, the steel works, Parnell Place in the city's now affluent East End, the breakwall and Art Deco ocean baths. There were no casualties in the attack and damage was minimal.
They had been replaced over four decades by the larger coal mining activities further inland at places such as Kurri Kurri and Cessnock. An engraving of this appeared in the Illustrated London News on 1. February 1. 85. 4.
At the Sydney International Exhibition they won a bronze medal . Following World War I the company was sold to Messrs Lever & Kitchen (today Lever Bros), and the factory closed in the mid- 1.
In 1. 91. 1, BHP chose the city as the site for its steelworks due to the abundance of coal. In 1. 91. 5, the BHP steelworks opened, beginning a period of some 8. As Mayfield and the suburbs surrounding the steelworks declined in popularity because of pollution, the steelworks thrived, becoming the region's largest employer. In 1. 99. 9, the steelworks closed after 8. Some had to be demolished, including the large George Hotel in Scott Street (city), the Century Theatre at Broadmeadow, the Hunter Theatre (formerly 'The Star'), the Newcastle RSL in Perkins Street, and the majority of The Junction school at Merewether. Part of the Newcastle Workers' Club, a popular venue, was destroyed and later replaced by a new structure. The city and suburbs suffered significant property damage also.
The following economic recession of the early 1. June 2. 00. 7 Hunter Region and Central Coast storms. This resulted in extensive flooding and nine deaths. Thousands of homes were flooded and many were destroyed. The Pasha Bulker was finally refloated on the third salvage attempt on 2 July 2.
After initially entering the port for minor repairs it departed for major repairs in Asia under tow on 2. July 2. 00. 7. Maritime. It was later found that the ferry pilot was at fault. He ejected but his parachute failed to fully deploy and he was killed when he crashed through the roof of a house.
Although The Junction is a highly populated suburb of Newcastle and most of the plane wreckage landed in the shopping area of the suburb, nobody was killed or injured by the aircraft wreckage. In 2. 00. 7 a memorial plaque was unveiled for the killed pilot. Newcastle is the world's largest coal export port and Australia's oldest and second largest tonnage throughput port, with over 3,0.
Many of the remaining manufacturing industries have located themselves well away from the city itself, focusing on cheap land and access to road transport routes and lack the concentrated social impact of BHP on the city's life. Victoria Theatre on Perkins Street is the oldest purpose- built theatre in the country. The theatre district that occupied the area around what is now the Hunter Street Mall vanished during the 1. Newcastle's cultural appreciation disintegrated in the very industrial- oriented city. British Leyland buses have replaced the trams. The old city centre has seen some new apartments and hotels built in recent years, but the rate of commercial and retail occupation remains low while alternate suburban centres have become more important. The CBD itself is shifting to the west, towards the major urban renewal area known as .
This renewal, to run for another 1. The old central business district, located at Newcastle's eastern end, still has a considerable number of historic buildings, dominated by Christ Church Cathedral, seat of the (Anglican) Bishop of Newcastle. Residents of Newcastle refer to themselves as . Hunter Valley Research Foundation. Archived from the original on 2. Coal River Working Party. Newcastle City Council.
The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2. Australian Government.
Australian Railway Historical Society Bulletin, October, 1. Archived from the original on 2.
Australian National Maritime Museum. Archived from the original on 2. San Clemente High School.
The Sydney Morning Herald. Department of Defence.
Retrieved 2. 5 April 2. Newcastle Port Corporation. Rising Tide Australia. Parliament of New South Wales.
John W., Manufacturing in Newcastle, Newcastle, 1. ISBN 0- 9. 59. 93. Morrison James, Ron, Newcastle – Times Past, Newcastle, 2. P/B), ISBN 0- 9. 75.
Tyne Valley line - Wikipedia. The Tyne Valley line, built by the Newcastle & Carlisle Railway, is a railway line in northern England. The 6. 0- mile (9. Newcastle upon Tyne in Tyne and Wear with Carlisle in Cumbria. Formal opening took place on 1. June 1. 83. 8. The line follows the course of the River Tyne through Northumberland. Five stations and two viaducts on the route are listed structures.
The line is referred to by the train operators as . The line is also heavily used for freight, and is an important diversionary route during East Coast Main Line closures. The line is not an electrified route. Passenger services are operated by diesel multiple units, typically Class 1. Before this, Metro- Cammell Class 1.
History. The line was built in sections from 1. The first section (Hexham - Blaydon) opened in March 1. May after a local landowner objected to the use of locomotives (specifically prohibited by the Act of Parliament). A temporary Tyne bridge was built at Scotswood to allow trains to reach a terminus at Forth Banks in Newcastle - this opened on 2.
October 1. 83. 9. N& CR trains first used Newcastle Central railway station on 1 January 1. The N& CR was absorbed into the North Eastern Railway on 1. July 1. 86. 2. From 1. Carlisle Citadel station, and the old London Road station was closed. In 1. 87. 0, the temporary bridge at Scotswood was removed, and a new iron Scotswood Bridge was built to replace it. In 1. 98. 2, British Rail closed the Scotswood Bridge.
Tyne Valley trains from Newcastle were diverted to use the present route, crossing the King Edward VII Bridge south- west of Newcastle Central Station, and running via Dunston to Blaydon, on an upgraded section of the original route along the south bank of the Tyne that had previously been freight- only since the 1. Since 1. 98. 2, after leaving Newcastle, the line crosses the River Tyne on the King Edward VII Bridge and then diverges from the southbound East Coast Main Line passing west through Gateshead, with stations at Dunston, the Metro. Centre and Blaydon.
Past Ryton, the line enters Northumberland and passes Wylam station. The station house at Wylam was built in 1.
Grade II* listed. The line continues along the south bank of the Tyne, with other stops in Northumberland being Prudhoe, Stocksfield, Riding Mill, Corbridge, Hexham, Haydon Bridge, Bardon Mill and Haltwhistle.
A deviation at Corbridge, opened on 2. May 1. 96. 2, allowed straightening of the line to remove a 4.
The line then joins up with the Settle- Carlisle Railway just before reaching Carlisle Citadel station. Scotswood, Newburn & Wylam Railway. The line diverged from the original N& CR at Scotswood, ran along the north bank of the Tyne, with stations at Newburn, Lemington, Heddon- on- the- Wall and North Wylam, before crossing the River Tyne via the Wylam Railway Bridge and joining the N& CR again at the West Wylam Junction.
The line followed the course of a waggonway between North Wylam and Lemington Staithes which had been in operation since 1. Wylam and Walbottle to a part of the river which could be accessed by Keel boats. Construction of the new line began in April 1. On 1. 2 July 1. 87. Scotswood and Newburn was opened. It was operated by North Eastern Railway on behalf of SN& WR. On 1. 3 May 1. 87.
Newburn and North Wylam opened. In October 1. 87. North Wylam and the West Wylam Junction opened. On 1. 5 September 1. Newburn, Lemington and Heddon- on- the- Wall closed to passengers.
Heddon- on- the- Wall also closed to goods on that day. On 4 January 1. 96. Lemington Station closed to goods trains. Newburn Station also closed to goods traffic on 2. April 1. 96. 5. Scotswood closed to goods trains two days later. Between 1. 96. 5 and 1. Newcastle and Carlisle while a section of the main line between Scotswood and Blaydon was closed.
Elswick closed to passengers on 2 January 1. Scotswood closed to passengers on 1 May 1. The last station open Wylam North closed with the line on 1. March 1. 96. 8. The track between Scotswood and Newburn remained to take rail traffic to and from Stella North Power Station and the Ever Ready factory in Newburn but the track was removed shortly after the Ever Ready factory closed in 1. It was also linked to the Wansbeck Valley Railway, which ran from Reedsmouth to Morpeth and connected to the branch line from Rothbury.
The Border Counties line closed to passengers in 1. Beeching Axe), although a small section of track between Reedsmouth and Bellingham was retained, accessed from the Wansbeck line, until the latter shut in the mid sixties. Some of the trackbed is now lost beneath Kielder Reservoir, although the disused Kielder Viaduct remains a prominent local landmark. The Allendale branch ran south- west from Hexham Junction and was primarily used to carry minerals from mines and quarries around Allendale and the village of Langley. It was never popular, with passenger services ending in 1. The Alston branch covered 1.
Haltwhistle. This branch provided a passenger service and also, in the early days, served the hundreds of lead mines in the upper South Tyne Valley. It included the monumental Lambley Viaduct and was the last of the branch lines to close in 1.
Part of the Alston end has been turned into a narrow gaugeheritage railway, the South Tynedale Railway. There was a short branch (closed to passengers in 1.
Brampton station into the town of Brampton. The junction of this railway (Brampton Junction) also linked to Lord Carlisle's Railway, a primarily industrial branch line pre- dating the Newcastle and Carlisle Railway itself, which also linked into the Alston branch at Lambley. References. The Directory of Railway Stations. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd.
Grainger, Richard (1. A Proposal for Concentrating the Termini of the Newcastle & Carlisle, Great North of England & proposed Edinburgh Railways. A short pamphlet plus fold- out map.
The original from which reference has been made is in the North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers. It is reference Tracts vol 5. This contains a great deal about the early period of N& CR activity in Newcastle/Gateshead.
Whittle, G. The Newcastle & Carlisle Railway. Newton Abbot: David & Charles. Railways in Northumberland. Pudsey: Martin Bairstow.